GNSS TUTORIAL: Interacting with Movella XSense IMU sensor in C++ Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor is important for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) based positioning, velocity and timing (PNT) solutions.

GNSS Real-time decoding of NAV messages of Septentrio receiver in C programming language Septentrio receiver is one of the most used global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers, including u-blox and Novatel GNSS receivers.

GNSS Reading raw binary IQ data in C/C++ with malloc() and pointer Digital signal processing (DSP) of radio frequency (RF) data very often deals with read from and write to a binary file with IQ format.

Research Classic philosophies that have been forgotten: Important factors for research and development In this post, we will discuss the forgotten classic philosophies (values) that are instrumental for performing high quality research, development and innovation activities.

Metrology Productive metrology: Evaluating the cost of part inspections In this third post, we will discuss how the measurement cost affects the total production cost as well as how to correctly calculate the measurement cost to support a decision making for machine selection so that we can lower the total production cost.

Metrology Productive metrology: The relation between uncertainty and economic benefit In this second post about productive metrology, we will discuss how a measurement uncertainty can affect the economic benefit of metrology.

Metrology Productive metrology: The role of metrology to transform data into know-how or wisdom Metrology has been commonly seen as “cost-centre”. In this first post in the topic of “productive metrology” that is metrology as “profit-centre”, we will start by discussing the philosophical goal of metrology to gain know-how or wisdom.

GNSS The importance of GNSS satellite clock-bias and orbit correction The position of a receiver calculated from global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals is significantly affected by the accuracy of the satellite clock-bias and orbit transmitted by GNSS satellites.

Applied programming TUTORIAL: MATLAB software inter-connection and cooperation with PYTHON software using pyenv() In a complex software application, most of the time, the application is written with several programming languages. These programming languages are inter-connected and cooperate together (compatible) to deliver the overall software functionalities.

Metrology Error compensation for coordinate measuring instrument: Error separation and self-calibration Rehearsal method is a method to separate combined or coupled errors into separated individual error elements. By separating the combined errors into individual errors, the error quantification of an instrument can be performed without a calibrated artefact and/or calibration instrument.

Metrology Error compensation for coordinate measuring instrument: The mathematical model of 3-axis coordinate measuring machine (CMM) The mathematical model of a measuring instrument is important for building the error compensation system for the instrument.

Metrology Error compensation for coordinate measuring instrument: Steps and calibration instruments For the implementation of error compensation on measuring instruments or machine tools, there are steps to follow, that are the reconstruction of an error map (via mathematical modelling via analytical or empirical methods) and the calibration process to quantify and characterise the error map.

Metrology Error compensation for coordinate measuring instrument: introduction and types Error compensation is an important process to produce an accurate measuring instrument. Any measuring instruments, although inherently constituted by accurate and precise components, always have some degree of error.

Research Disruptive innovation to create growth: A research perspective Economic growth is one of the main targets of a nation to reach prosperity. It is well known that developed nations leverage knowledge-based economic created from advanced research and high-value products or services.

Metrology X-Ray computerised tomography (X-ray CT) for industrial part measurement: History, working principle, measurement procedure, applications and characteristics X-Ray computerised tomography (X-ray CT) has the ability to non-destructively measure internal features of a part that is made of different materials including metals and non-metals.

GNSS Correlator outputs for clean and spoofed GPS L1 C/A signals The pseudorange and navigation data determination from global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals are calculated from the correlator outputs at the tracking stage of the GNSS signal processing.

GNSS Public datasets for spoofing and evil waveform (EWF) signals Spoofing attacks on GNSS signals become more serious than ever due to the advancement of spoofing algorithms and computational capabilities and processing. These spoofing attacks transmit a counterfeit signal that leads to a wrong positioning, timing and navigation (PNT) solutions.

Research Reverse step: building research and knowledge from data or observation study Research is an iterative process and can be performed in either forward or reverse steps. Different fields of research require different research steps that best suit the specific situation of each field.

Metrology Mathematical geometrical fitting: Direct least-square fitting of circle geometry (with tutorial and code) Circle is a non-linear geometry that has a non-linear mathematical model. In this post, a closed-form and deterministic method to fit a circle from points (e.g., obtained from a measurement) by using direct least-square (DLS) estimation method is presented.

Metrology Mathematical geometrical fitting: Automatic measurement algorithm case studies In this post, practical case studies of algorithm implementations for automatic geometrical perpendicularity and cutting tool measurements are presented.

Metrology Mathematical geometrical fitting: Data filtering of measurement points Data filtering is a process to reduce noises or supress certain components or information contained in measurement data by using a specific kernel (filter).

Metrology Mathematical geometrical fitting: Initial solution problems Any iterative optimisation algorithms, used to optimise non-linear and multi-modal objective functions, always require an initial solution estimation.

Metrology Mathematical geometrical fitting: Non-linear geometry least-squared fitting (with tutorial) The fitting process for non-linear geometry is more complex than that for the linear geometry fitting. Non-linear geometry includes circle (2D and 3D), sphere, cylinder, cone and torus as well as more complex geometries such as free-form surfaces.

Metrology Mathematical geometrical fitting: Linear geometry least-squared fitting (with tutorial) The least-squared fitting of linear geometry is solved by transforming a non-linear objective function of residuals into a linear objective function of the residuals.

Metrology Mathematical geometrical fitting: Concept and fitting methods One of instrumental aspects in dimensional, geometrical and surface texture measurements is an algorithm to mathematically fit a geometry to spatial points. These spatial points are captured and digitised by a measuring instrument.